Diabetes: Type1, Type 2 and Gestational
In the current world, diabetes is a common problem. Hundreds of millions of people are affected by diabetes. It can also be defined as a pandemic. Diabetes is a chronic condition that happens as a result of high levels of glucose in the blood. Inadequate supply of insulin from the pancreas causes diabetes. Insulin allows the glucose to pass from your blood into your body's cells. After the cells have enough glucose, the excess is stored in liver and muscle tissues as glycogen. This glycogen is broken down into blood sugar and released when you need energy between meals, during exercise, or while you sleep. The body's inability to produce insulin to break down glucose can cause serious health problems such as obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, vision impairment and kidney disease.
Types of Diabetes
There are three types of diabetes Type1, Type 2 and Gestational.
Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, which means the immune system destroys the beta cells in the pancreas, which produce insulin. Once it is destroyed, the body is unable to produce insulin. A person with Type 1 diabetes will need a daily injection of insulin.
It is still not known why the immune system attacks the body's cells. Mainly, it is attributed to genetics, environmental factors, like a virus.
Type 1 diabetes symptoms can come on suddenly and may include:
- Blurry vision
- Frequent urination
- Unexplained weight loss
- Increased appetite and thirst
- Irritability and mood changes
- Tiredness and weakness
- Unexplained weight loss
- Extreme hunger
- Frequent infections of your skin, urinary tract, or vagina
Certain emergency conditions arise with Type 1 diabetes.
- Rapid breathing
- Dry skin and mouth
- Fruity breath odour
- Vomiting or stomach pain
- Shaking and confusion
- Loss of consciousness (rare)
As we all know, there is no cure for diabetes. But, people with Type 1 diabetes can live long by monitoring their blood sugar levels. Consulting an endocrinologist will provide you with the range where the sugar levels should remain. Injecting insulin as per physicians advice is a must. Initially, doctors may advise two injections a day. Later you may need more shots.
A healthy eating plan is essential for those with Type 1 diabetes. To have a healthy eating plan, you need to understand how carbs, protein and fats affect your blood sugar. Physical activity is vital in the treatment of Type 1 diabetes. Your insulin dose has to be balanced with your activity and food.
Type 2 Diabetes
It is the more common type of diabetes. About 90-95% of adults have type 2 diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas creates insulin, but tissues cannot respond to it; this condition is termed insulin resistance.
Again, like type 1, the causes are unknown, but genetics and lifestyle factors can be the reasons for insulin resistance. In addition, overweight, lack of physical activity, and an unhealthy diet can contribute to this.
- Frequent bladder infections
- Skin infections that don’t heal easily
- Excess thirst
- Frequent urination
- Weight loss
- Blurred vision
- Nausea and vomiting
- Extreme weakness and fatigue
- Dry and itchy skin
- Loss of feeling in the feet and hands
- Areas of darkened skin, usually in the armpits and neck
Some people do not show any symptoms of Type 2 diabetes
Type 2 Diabetes in Children
The perception that type 2 diabetes comes in adulthood has changed over the years. Where it was rare in children has become more common. It may attribute to overweight or obesity among children's. If children don't get enough exercise or physical activity, they are at higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes.
There is no cure for diabetes; we can only control it. A good fibre rich and healthy carb diet will help keep steady your blood sugar levels in control. Exercise half an hour will keep your heart healthy as well as control blood sugar levels. Some people with type 2 diabetes are advised pills that prompt the body to produce more insulin. If it does not work, they might need an insulin injection.
Type 1 and Type 2 are different in nature, but the complications that arise are long term. High blood sugar levels may cause heart disease, kidney failure, nerve damage, vision loss, and skin disorders for more extended periods.
Schedule an appointment with an endocrinologist, if you believe that you may have diabetes.
It is a condition in which blood sugar level rises in women during pregnancy. It happens in pregnant women who do not have diabetes. Usually, this goes away after the baby's birth, but it can affect the baby's health and increase the risk of type 2 diabetes for mother and kid later in life.
Feel more hunger
Excess weight before pregnancy often plays a role. During pregnancy, hormone levels change, making it harder for your body to process blood sugar efficiently. It makes your blood sugar rise.
One must take treatment as soon as possible to keep mother and baby healthy during pregnancy and delivery. Below are the things that a physician will ask
- To check blood sugar levels
- To check urine for ketones, chemicals that mean that your diabetes isn’t under control
- Eat a healthy diet
- Do exercise a habit
The doctor will keep track of your weight and your baby’s development. They might give you insulin or another medicine to keep your blood sugar under control.